Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
Portland Cement is the principal ingredient in concrete, which is used worldwide as the main building block of infrastructure construction as well as for commercial and residential structures.
Air toxics, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Portland cement manufacturing is an energy intensive process in which cement is made by grinding and heating a mixture of raw materials such as limestone, clay, sand, and iron ore in a rotary kiln. The kiln is a large furnace that is fueled by coal, oil, gas, coke and/or various waste materials. The product (called clinker) from the kiln is cooled, ground, and then mixed with a small amount of gypsum to produce portland cement.
The main source of air toxics emissions from a portland cement plant is the kiln. Emissions originate from the burning of fuels and heating of feed materials. Air toxics are also emitted from the grinding, cooling, and materials handling steps in the manufacturing process. Pollutants regulated under this rule are particulate matter, organic HAP, metals through the control of particulate matter, mercury, acid gases, and dioxin/furan.
09/11/2015 – Final Rule; correcting amendments
07/27/2015 – Final Amendments
11/19/2014 – Proposed Rule
02/12/2013 – Final Rule
07/18/2012 – Proposed Rules on Reconsideration
01/18/2011 – Direct Final rule; amendments
09/09/2010 – Final Rule
05/06/2009 – Proposed Rule
12/20/2006 – Final Rule
01/09/2006 – Proposed Rule
12/02/2005 – Proposed Rule; amendments
12/06/2002 – Final Rule; amendments
07/05/2002 – Final Rule; clarifications and corrections
07/02/2002 – Partial Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule
10/04/2001 – Proposed Settlement for Public Comment
06/14/1999 – Final Rule
03/24/1998 – Proposed Rule
Regulatory Impact Analysis: Amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and New Source Perofrmance Standards (NSPS) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Final Report
To find additional supporting documents for the rules until 2011, look through the documents in the docket folder.
To find additional supporting documents for the rules after 2011, look through the documents in the docket folder.
Applicability Determination Index (ADI). The ADI is maintained by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) and provides a data base of memoranda dealing with applicability issues. The database is searchable by Subpart.