Radioactive materials are present in many soils and rock formations, and consequently in the water that comes into contact with them. Extraction and processing of these resources may expose or concentrate naturally occurring radioactive materialsnaturally occurring radioactive materialsMaterials found in nature that emit ionizing radiation that have not been moved or concentrated by human activity. (NORM), causing them to be classified as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM).
This list of TENORM sources is not comprehensive, as TENORM radiation is known to occur in other materials, but provides a general sense of the hazards posed by this class of radioactive substances.
- Oil and Gas Production Wastes
- Drinking Water Treatment Wastes
- Wastewater Treatment Residuals
- Aluminum Production Wastes
- Coal Combustion Residuals
- Copper Mining and Production Wastes
- Fertilizer and Fertilizer Production Wastes
- Gold, Silver, Zircon and Titanium Mining Wastes
- Rare Earths (Monazite, Xenotime, Bastnasite) Mining Wastes
- Uranium Mining Wastes