Below you will find resources and guidance related to TENORM. Studies of existing TENORM sites provide information needed to select appropriate methods for estimating risks from these sites, the best ways to clean up the sites, and the most economical and environmentally friendly ways to dispose of the TENORM.
View known or potential mine location information from federal, state and Tribal agencies in a single database as part of EPA's investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
Report to Congress: Evaluation of EPA’s Guidelines for Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) (PDF)(22 pp, 78 K,
EPA sponsored a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) evaluation of existing methods for estimating the risk from TENORM sites and existing guidelines for cleaning them up. EPA sponsored the study at the request of Congress.
Potential for Radiation Contamination Associated With Mineral and Resource Extraction Industries (PDF)(19 pp, 152 K,
April 15, 2003)
EPA guidance to its regional personnel which are involved in site visits and inspections. This document provides a listing of the various types of mineral and other sites which might have associated TENORM radioactivity.
Technical Report on Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials From Uranium Mining - Volume 1: Mining and Reclamation Background (PDF)(225 pp, 3 MB,
This report, the first of two volumes, examines uranium in the United States: its occurrence in natural settings, industrial uses, extraction methods employed over the last century, solid and liquid wastes from various extraction methods and reclamation and remediation methods to restore the extraction site's environment.
Technical Report on Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials from Uranium Mining - Volume 2: Investigation of Potential Health, Geographic, And Environmental Issues of Abandoned Uranium Mines (PDF)(131 pp, 3 MB,
This is the second of two reports on uranium mining TENORM. This report investigates the potential radiogenic cancer risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small abandoned uranium mines, and where the greatest risks may lie.
Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Southwestern Copper Belt of Arizona (PDF)(124 pp, 8 MB,
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been working over the past several years to better understand the nature and extent of TENORM that may become concentrated at copper mining sites. This document presents the information that EPA has compiled on this issue to date.
Radiation Health and Safety Practices for Community Water Systems (PDF)(2 pp, 685 K,
Brochure addressing how to minimizing worker exposure to radon and radiation at community water systems (CWSs)
Draft Technical Report: Ground Water Modeling Studies at In Situ Leaching Facilities and Evaluation of Doses and Risks to Offsite Receptors from Contaminated Ground Water: Revision 2 (PDF)(185 pp, 2 MB,
This draft report presents the results of ground water modeling studies on possible releases from hypothetical ISL faculties based on a range of release scenarios. The studies were designed to demonstrate whether or under what conditions leakage of various types from an ISL site to a down-gradient receptor well can result in hazardous situations.
Draft Technical Report: Considerations Related to Post-Closure Monitoring Of Uranium In-Situ Leach/In-Situ Recovery (ISL/ISR) Sites (PDF)(127 pp, 2 MB)
This draft Technical Report is intended to support the SAB's technical consideration of issues associated with establishing the groundwater baseline for new facilities, demonstrating that the restored groundwater has reached steady state, and post-restoration stability monitoring to ensure that the groundwater quality is not deteriorating over time after restoration.
References Cited in Draft Technical Report: Considerations Related to Post-Closure Monitoring Of Uranium In-Situ Leach/In-Situ Recovery (ISL/ISR) Sites (PDF)(10 pp, 81 K)
Reference list from the Draft Technical Report: Considerations Related to Post-Closure Monitoring of Uranium In-Situ Leach/In-Situ Recovery (ISL/ISR) Sites. Technical references are linked to the original source document or to the publisher when possible.