Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

Rule Summary

This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing plant sites that manufacture flexible polyurethane foam. The original technology-based rule, issued in 1998, controlled emission of methylene chloride, 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl chloroform, methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), propylene oxide, diethanolamine, methyl ethyl ketone, methanol and toluene. Methylene chloride comprised over 98 percent of the total hazardous air pollutant emissions from the industry.

The standards reduce hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from all existing sources of flexible polyurethane foam manufacturing by over 14,000 tons per year (tpy), a 70 percent reduction from the baseline. In 2014, the EPA evaluated the remaining risk and any updates to the technology, and issued a rule that provides increased protection. The final rule amendments do not result in any directly quantifiable reduction of actual HAP emissions. However, we estimate that potential increases in emissions in the future, will be reduced by 735 tpy.

Rule History

08/15/2014 - Final rule

11/04/2013 - Proposed rule

10/07/1998 - Final rule

02/03/1997 - Correction

12/27/1996 - Proposed rule and notice of public hearing

Additional Resources

Summary of Public Comments and Responses

Basis and Purpose Document for Proposed Standards

Supplimentary Information Document for Proposed Standards

Economic Impact Analysis (EIA) for Proposed Standards

Fact Sheets


Plain Language Guide to the Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production NESHAP 40 CFR 63, Subpart III