Substitutes by Sector
EPA's decision on the acceptability of new substitutes is based on its understanding of the overall risk to the environmental and human health impacts posed by the substitutes as compared with other substitutes available for a particular end-use. For more information about EPA's evaluation of each substitute in an end-use, see the Overview of SNAP.
Substitutes by Industrial Sector
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
End-uses in this sector typically use a refrigerant in a vapor compression cycle to cool and/or dehumidify a substances or space, like a refrigerator cabinet, room, office building, or warehouse.
Foam Blowing Agents
Foam blowing agents are used in a wide variety of applications including refrigerators, buildings, automobiles, furniture, packaging, and many more. The blowing agent is used to propel liquid plastic resin, and in the case of foam used for insulation it functions as an insulating component of the foam.
Cleaning solvents are used to remove oil, grease, solder flux, and other contaminants.
Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection
Chemical agents in this sector are used in various fire protection applications to extinguish a fire, including those in the military, aviation, electronics, oil, and gas sectors. These agents are often required to meet specific requirements such as being electrically non-conductive, dissipating rapidly without residue, safe for limited human exposure, and extremely efficient in extinguishing most types of fires.
Substances in this sector are stored under pressure and then released as a suspension of particles in air.
Substances in this sector are used to kill microorganisms on medical equipment and devices.
Tobacco expansion is the process of puffing leaves of tobacco to decrease the volume of tobacco used in cigarette production.
Adhesives, Coatings, and Inks
Traditionally, these substances contain solid components that are suspended in a solvent, spread over a surface and bond to it, and then allow the solvent to evaporate.