Pollution Prevention (P2)

Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

§ 13101. Findings and policy
§ 13102. Definitions
§ 13103. EPA activities
§ 13104. Grants to States for State technical
             assistance programs
§ 13105. Source Reduction Clearinghouse
§ 13106. Source reduction and recycling data collection
§ 13107. EPA report
§ 13108. Savings provisions
§ 13109. Authorization of appropriations


§ 13101. Findings and policy

(a) Findings
    The Congress finds that:
    (1) The United States of America annually produces millions of tons of pollution and spends tens of billions of dollars per year controlling this pollution.
    (2) There are significant opportunities for industry to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. Such changes offer industry substantial savings in reduced raw material, pollution control, and liability costs as well as help protect the environment and reduce risks to worker health and safety.
    (3) The opportunities for source reduction are often not realized because existing regulations, and the industrial resources they require for compliance, focus upon treatment and disposal, rather than source reduction; existing regulations do not emphasize multi-media management of pollution; and businesses need information and technical assistance to overcome institutional barriers to the adoption of source reduction practices.
    (4) Source reduction is fundamentally different and more desirable than waste management and pollution control. The Environmental Protection Agency needs to address the historical lack of attention to source reduction.
    (5) As a first step in preventing pollution through source reduction, the Environmental Protection Agency must establish a source reduction program which collects and disseminates information, provides financial assistance to States, and implements the other activities provided for in this chapter.
(b) Policy
    The Congress hereby declares it to be the national policy of the United States that pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner, whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible; and disposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort and should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner.

§ 13102. Definitions

For purposes of this chapter
1. The term ''Administrator'' means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
2. The term ''Agency'' means the Environmental Protection Agency.
3. The term ''toxic chemical'' means any substance on the list described in section 11023(c) of this title.
4. The term ''release'' has the same meaning as provided by section 11049(8) of this title.
    (A) The term ''source reduction'' means any practice which -
        (i) reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and
        (ii) reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants. The term includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control.
    (B) The term ''source reduction'' does not include any practice which alters the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics or the volume of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant through a process or activity which itself is not integral to and necessary for the production of a product or the providing of a service.
6.The term multimedia means water, air, and land.
7.The term ''SIC codes'' refers to the 2-digit code numbers used for classification of economic activity in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual.

§ 13103. EPA activities

(a) Authorities
The Administrator shall establish in the Agency an office to carry out the functions of the Administrator under this chapter. The office shall be independent of the Agency's single-medium program offices but shall have the authority to review and advise such offices on their activities to promote a multimedia approach to source reduction. The office shall be under the direction of such officer of the Agency as the Administrator shall designate.
(b) Functions
The Administrator shall develop and implement a strategy to promote source reduction. As part of the strategy, the Administrator shall -
    1. establish standard methods of measurement of source reduction;
    2. ensure that the Agency considers the effect of its existing and proposed programs on source reduction efforts and shall review regulations of the Agency prior and subsequent to their proposal to determine their effect on source reduction;
    3. coordinate source reduction activities in each Agency Office (FOOTNOTE 1) and coordinate with appropriate offices to promote source reduction practices in other Federal agencies, and generic research and development on techniques and processes which have broad applicability;
    (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.
    4. develop improved methods of coordinating, streamlining and assuring public access to data collected under Federal environmental statutes;
    5. facilitate the adoption of source reduction techniques by businesses. This strategy shall include the use of the Source Reduction Clearinghouse and State matching grants provided in this chapter to foster the exchange of information regarding source reduction techniques, the dissemination of such information to businesses, and the provision of technical assistance to businesses. The strategy shall also consider the capabilities of various businesses to make use of source reduction techniques;
    6. identify, where appropriate, measurable goals which reflect the policy of this chapter, the tasks necessary to achieve the goals, dates at which the principal tasks are to be accomplished, required resources, organizational responsibilities, and the means by which progress in meeting the goals will be measured;
    7. (FOOTNOTE 2) establish an advisory panel of technical experts comprised of representatives from industry, the States, and public interest groups, to advise the Administrator on ways to improve collection and dissemination of data;
    (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Subsec. (b) enacted without a par. (7).
    8. establish a training program on source reduction opportunities, including workshops and guidance documents, for State and Federal permit issuance, enforcement, and inspection officials working within all agency program offices. (FOOTNOTE 3)
    (FOOTNOTE 3) So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
    9. identify and make recommendations to Congress to eliminate barriers to source reduction including the use of incentives and disincentives;
    10. identify opportunities to use Federal procurement to encourage source reduction;
    11. develop, test and disseminate model source reduction auditing procedures designed to highlight source reduction opportunities; and
    12. establish an annual award program to recognize a company or companies which operate outstanding or innovative source reduction programs.

§ 13104. Grants to States for State technical assistance programs

(a) General authority
The Administrator shall make matching grants to States for programs to promote the use of source reduction techniques by businesses.
(b) Criteria
When evaluating the requests for grants under this section, the Administrator shall consider, among other things, whether the proposed State program would accomplish the following:
    1. Make specific technical assistance available to businesses seeking information about source reduction opportunities, including funding for experts to provide onsite technical advice to business (FOOTNOTE 1) seeking assistance and to assist in the development of source reduction plans.
    (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''businesses''.
    2. Target assistance to businesses for whom lack of information is an impediment to source reduction.
    3. Provide training in source reduction techniques. Such training may be provided through local engineering schools or any other appropriate means.
(c) Matching funds
Federal funds used in any State program under this section shall provide no more than 50 percent of the funds made available to a State in each year of that State's participation in the program.
(d) Effectiveness
The Administrator shall establish appropriate means for measuring the effectiveness of the State grants made under this section in promoting the use of source reduction techniques by businesses.
(e) Information
States receiving grants under this section shall make information generated under the grants available to the Administrator.

§ 13105. Source Reduction Clearinghouse

(a) Authority
The Administrator shall establish a Source Reduction Clearinghouse to compile information including a computer data base which contains information on management, technical, and operational approaches to source reduction. The Administrator shall use the clearinghouse to -
    1. serve as a center for source reduction technology transfer;
    2. mount active outreach and education programs by the States to further the adoption of source reduction technologies; and
    3. collect and compile information reported by States receiving grants under section 13104 of this title on the operation and success of State source reduction programs.
(b) Public availability
The Administrator shall make available to the public such information on source reduction as is gathered pursuant to this chapter and such other pertinent information and analysis regarding source reduction as may be available to the Administrator. The data base shall permit entry and retrieval of information to any person.

§ 13106. Source reduction and recycling data collection

(a) Reporting requirements
Each owner or operator of a facility required to file an annual toxic chemical release form under section 11023 of this title for any toxic chemical shall include with each such annual filing a toxic chemical source reduction and recycling report for the proceeding (FOOTNOTE 1) calendar year. The toxic chemical source reduction and recycling report shall cover each toxic chemical required to be reported in the annual toxic chemical release form filed by the owner or operator under section 11023(c) of this title. This section shall take effect with the annual report filed under section 11023 of this title for the first full calendar year beginning after November 5, 1990.
(FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be ''preceding''.
(b) Items included in report
The toxic chemical source reduction and recycling report required under subsection (a) of this section shall set forth each of the following on a facility-by-facility basis for each toxic chemical:
    1. The quantity of the chemical entering any waste stream (or otherwise released into the environment) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal during the calendar year for which the report is filed and the percentage change from the previous year. The quantity reported shall not include any amount reported under paragraph (7). When actual measurements of the quantity of a toxic chemical entering the waste streams are not readily available, reasonable estimates should be made based on best engineering judgment.
    2. The amount of the chemical from the facility which is recycled (at the facility or elsewhere) during such calendar year, the percentage change from the previous year, and the process of recycling used.
    3. The source reduction practices used with respect to that chemical during such year at the facility. Such practices shall be reported in accordance with the following categories unless the Administrator finds other categories to be more appropriate.
        (A) Equipment, technology, process, or procedure modifications.
        (B) Reformulation or redesign of products.
        (C) Substitution of raw materials.
        (D) Improvement in management, training, inventory control, materials handling, or other general operational phases of industrial facilities.
    4. The amount expected to be reported under paragraph (FOOTNOTE 2) (1) and (2) for the two calendar years immediately following the calendar year for which the report is filed. Such amount shall be expressed as a percentage change from the amount reported in paragraphs (1) and (2).
    (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be ''paragraphs''.
    5. A ratio of production in the reporting year to production in the previous year. The ratio should be calculated to most closely reflect all activities involving the toxic chemical. In specific industrial classifications subject to this section, where a feedstock or some variable other than production is the primary influence on waste characteristics or volumes, the report may provide an index based on that primary variable for each toxic chemical. The Administrator is encouraged to develop production indexes to accommodate individual industries for use on a voluntary basis.
    6. The techniques which were used to identify source reduction opportunities. Techniques listed should include, but are not limited to, employee recommendations, external and internal audits, participative team management, and material balance audits. Each type of source reduction listed under paragraph (3) should be associated with the techniques or multiples of techniques used to identify the source reduction technique.
    7. The amount of any toxic chemical released into the environment which resulted from a catastrophic event, remedial action, or other one-time event, and is not associated with production processes during the reporting year.
    8. The amount of the chemical from the facility which is treated (at the facility or elsewhere) during such calendar year and the percentage change from the previous year. For the first year of reporting under this subsection, comparison with the previous year is required only to the extent such information is available.
(c) SARA provisions
The provisions of sections 11042, 11045(c), and 11046 of this title shall apply to the reporting requirements of this section in the same manner as to the reports required under section >11023 of this title. The Administrator may modify the form required for purposes of reporting information under section 11023 of this title to the extent he deems necessary to include the additional information required under this section.
(d) Additional optional information
Any person filing a report under this section for any year may include with the report additional information regarding source reduction, recycling, and other pollution control techniques in earlier years.
(e) Availability of data
Subject to section 11042 of this title, the Administrator shall make data collected under this section publicly available in the same manner as the data collected under section 11023 of this title.

§ 13107. EPA report

(a) Biennial reports
The Administrator shall provide Congress with a report within eighteen months after November 5, 1990, and biennially thereafter, containing a detailed description of the actions taken to implement the strategy to promote source reduction developed under section 13103(b) (FOOTNOTE 1) of this title and of the results of such actions. The report shall include an assessment of the effectiveness of the clearinghouse and grant program established under this chapter in promoting the goals of the strategy, and shall evaluate data gaps and data duplication with respect to data collected under Federal environmental statutes.
(FOOTNOTE 1) See References in Text note below.
(b) Subsequent reports
Each biennial report submitted under subsection (a) of this section after the first report shall contain each of the following:
    1. An analysis of the data collected under section 13106 of this title on an industry-by-industry basis for not less than five SIC codes or other categories as the Administrator deems appropriate. The analysis shall begin with those SIC codes or other categories of facilities which generate the largest quantities of toxic chemical waste. The analysis shall include an evaluation of trends in source reduction by industry, firm size, production, or other useful means. Each such subsequent report shall cover five SIC codes or other categories which were not covered in a prior report until all SIC codes or other categories have been covered.
    2. An analysis of the usefulness and validity of the data collected under section 13106 of this title for measuring trends in source reduction and the adoption of source reduction by business. 3. Identification of regulatory and nonregulatory barriers to source reduction, and of opportunities for using existing regulatory programs, and incentives and disincentives to promote and assist source reduction.
    4. Identification of industries and pollutants that require priority assistance in multimedia source reduction (FOOTNOTE 2)
    (FOOTNOTE 2) So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.
    5. Recommendations as to incentives needed to encourage investment and research and development in source reduction.
    6. Identification of opportunities and development of priorities for research and development in source reduction methods and techniques.
    7. An evaluation of the cost and technical feasibility, by industry and processes, of source reduction opportunities and current activities and an identification of any industries for which there are significant barriers to source reduction with an analysis of the basis of this identification.
    8. An evaluation of methods of coordinating, streamlining, and improving public access to data collected under Federal environmental statutes.
    9. An evaluation of data gaps and data duplication with respect to data collected under Federal environmental statutes. In the report following the first biennial report provided for under this subsection, paragraphs (3) through (9) may be included at the discretion of the Administrator.

§ 13108. Savings provisions

(a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to modify or interfere with the implementation of title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 11001 et seq.).
(b) Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed, interpreted or applied to supplant, displace, preempt or otherwise diminish the responsibilities and liabilities under other State or Federal law, whether statutory or common.

§ 13109. Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator $8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993 for functions carried out under this chapter (other than State Grants), (FOOTNOTE 1) and $8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993, for grant programs to States issued pursuant to section 13104 of this title. (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.