Exposure Assessment Models

PRZM Version Index

PRZM Releases
Version Release Date
Release Notes
5 July 2014
3.12.3 June 2006
3.12.2 May 2005
3.12.1 August 2003
3.12 beta February 1998
2.3 May 1996
2.00 October 1994
1.02 February 1993
1.00 October 1992

PRZM3 is the most recent version of a modeling system that links two subordinate models, PRZM and VADOFT, in order to predict pesticide transport and transformation down through the crop root and unsaturated zone.

PRZM is a one-dimensional, finite-difference model that accounts for pesticide and nitrogen fate in the crop root zone. PRZM3 includes modeling capabilities for such phenomena as soil temperature simulation, volatilization and vapor phase transport in soils, irrigation simulation, microbial transformation, and a method of characteristics (MOC) algorithm to eliminate numerical dispersion. PRZM is capable of simulating transport and transformation of the parent compound and as many as two daughter species. VADOFT is a one-dimensional, finite-element code that solves the Richard's equation for flow in the unsaturated zone. The user may make use of constitutive relationships between pressure, water content, and hydraulic conductivity to solve the flow equations. VADOFT may also simulate the fate of two parent and two daughter products. The PRZM and VADOFT codes are linked together with the aid of a flexible execution supervisor that allows the user to build loading models that are tailored to site-specific situations. In order to perform probability-based exposure assessments, the code is also equipped with a Monte Carlo pre- and post-processor.

The PRZM3 model system with documentation is available for microcomputer (DOS) systems. Enhancements to Release 3.0 include updates to physiochemical processes, increased flexibility in representing agronomic practices, and improved post-processing and data interpretation aids. A major modification includes algorithms that enable modeling of nitrogen cycle soil kinetic processes with the ability to track nitrogen discharges from a septic tank into the soil environment and movement to groundwater.

Several versions of the PRZM system are available on the EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) Web site. Refer to the PRZM release notes for information about the model's development history.