EPA promulgated Effluent Guidelines and Standards for Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustors (CHWC) in 2000. The regulation (40 CFR Part 444) covers wastewater discharges from hazardous waste combustor facilities, except cement kilns, regulated as "incinerators" or "boilers and industrial furnaces" under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The CHWC Effluent Guidelines are incorporated into NPDES permits for direct dischargersdirect dischargerA point source that discharges pollutants to waters of the United States, such as streams, lakes, or oceans., and permits or other control mechanisms for indirect dischargersindirect dischargerA facility that discharges pollutants to a publicly owned treatment works (municipal sewage treatment plant). (see Pretreatment Program).
The CHWC regulation applies solely to commercial facilities (i.e., facilities that accept wastes from off-site for fee or remuneration). It does not apply to commercial facilities that only accept off-site wastes that are of a similar nature to the wastes being generated and burned on site. An example of similar wastes are wastes that are generated in operations that are subject to the same Effluent Guidelines in 40 CFR Subchapter N.
The regulation does not apply to a hazardous waste combustor facility that accepts wastes from off-site without a fee or other remuneration. For example, it does not apply to a hazardous waste combustor facility that accepts off-site wastes only as a public service or pursuant to product stewardship agreements, as long as that facility accepts no fee or other remuneration for accepting those wastes.
The regulation is not applicable to hazardous waste combustors that only burn waste generated on site or off site from facilities under their same corporate structure.
Sources of CHWC wastewater covered by the regulation include only water used in air pollution control systems, and water used to quench flue gas or slag generated as a result of thermal operations.
The CHWC Effluent Guidelines and Standards are based on chemical precipitation, with or without sand filtration.
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Development Document for Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustors (PDF)(255 pp, 905 K,
Describes industry processes, pollutants generated, available control and treatment technologies, the technical basis for the final rule, and costs of the rule
- Economic Analysis of Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustors (PDF)(54 pp, 202 K, November 1999, 821-B-99-008)